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KLH in Publications

Publications of scientific research involving KLH. Abstracts or full text articles are available by link to outside sites. If you know of a KLH-related publication that is not yet on KLH Site™, let us know.

(in order by date)


Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation suppresses cell-mediated immunisation responses in humans: the Australian Ultraviolet Radiation and Immunity Study

Swaminathan A., Harrison S.L., Ketheesan N., van den Boogaard C. HA., Dear K., Allen M., Hart P.H., Cook M., Lucas RM.






Selective breeding for high natural antibody level increases resistance to avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) in chickens

Berghof TVL, Matthjis MGR, Arts JAJ, Bovenhuis H, Dwars RM, van der Poel JJ, Visker MHPW, Parmetier HK.



Design and evaluation of a hypoallergenic peptide-based vaccine for Salsola kali allergy.

Tabesh S, Fanuel S, Fazlollahi MR, Yekaninejad MS, Kardar GA, Razavi SA.

Int Immunopharmacol. 2018 Nov 13;66:62-68. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2018.10.037. [Epub ahead of print]



The Salsola kali (S. kali) pollen is one of the most important causes of allergic rhinitis in the deserts and semi-desert areas. Immunotherapy with allergen extracts remains the only available treatment addressing the underlying mechanism of allergy. However, given the low efficacy of this method, it is necessary to find more effective and alternative therapeutic interventions using molecular biology and bioinformatics tools. In this study, a hypoallergenic vaccine was designed on the basis of B-cell epitope approach for S. kali immunotherapy.


Using the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB), a 35-mer peptide was selected and chemically conjugated to a keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) molecule. Specific IgG and IgE from immunized BALB/c mice sera against the vaccine (Sal k 1-KLH), S. kali extract and the recombinant protein, rSal k 1, were measured using ELISA. Also, inhibition of IgE by mouse IgG was evaluated using an inhibitory ELISA. Finally, the IgE reactivity and T-cell reactivity of the designed vaccine were evaluated by dot blot assay and MTT assay.


Vaccination with the vaccine produced high levels of protective IgG in mice, which inhibited the binding of patients IgE to recombinant proteins. The result showed that the designed vaccine, unlike the recombinant protein and extract, did not induce T-cell lymphocytes response and also exhibited decreased IgE reactivity.


The designed vaccine can be considered as a promising candidate for therapeutic allergen-specific immunotherapy.


Monitoring of dynamic changes in Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH)-specific B cells in KLH-vaccinated cancer patients

Florian Wimmers, Nienke de Haas, Anja Scholzen, Gerty Schreibelt, Elles Simonetti, Marc J. Eleveld, Huberdina M. L. M. Brouwers, Marjo Beldhuis-Valkis, Irma Joosten, Marien I. de Jonge, Winald R. Gerritsen, I. Jolanda M. de Vries, Dimitri A. Diavatopoulos, Joannes F. M. Jacobs.


Wimmers, F. et al. Monitoring of dynamic changes in Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin(KLH)-specific B cells in KLH-vaccinated cancer patients. Sci. Rep. 7, 43486; doi: 10.1038/srep43486 (2017).




Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacodynamic, and Safety Profile of a Novel Anti-CD28 Domain Antibody Antagonist in Healthy Subjects

Rong Shi PhD, Marek Honczarenko MD, PhD, Sean Zhang MD, Catherine Fleener MS, Johanna Mora PhD, Sun Ku Lee PhD, Reena Wang MD, Xiaoni Liu PhD, Diane E. Shevell PhD, Zheng Yang PhD, Haiqing Wang PhD, Bindu Murthy PharmD.

J Clin Pharmacol. 2017 Feb;57(2):161-172. doi: 10.1002/jcph.791. Epub 2016 Aug 23.


First-in-Human Study in Healthy Subjects with FR104, a Pegylated Monoclonal Antibody Fragment Antagonist of CD28

Poirier NBlancho GHiance MMary CVan Assche TLempoels JRamael SWang WThepenier VBraudeau CSalabert NJosien RAnderson IGourley ISoulillou JPCoquoz DVanhove B

J Immunol. 2016 Dec 15;197(12):4593-4602. Epub 2016 Nov 14.

Relates to Clinical Trial NCT02800811


Clinical study of a survivin long peptide vaccine (SurVaxM) in patients with recurrent malignant glioma.

Fenstermaker RACiesielski MJQiu JYang NFrank CLLee KPMechtler LRBelal AAhluwalia MSHutson AD

Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2016 Nov;65(11):1339-1352. Epub 2016


Diverse Mechanisms in Immune Activation by Hemocyanins – a Key to Formation of a Potent Immune Response

Vera Gesheva
Department of Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

IORE Journal of Immunology IJL Vol 1.1 (2016)


Immune-related Adverse Events of Dendritic Cell Vaccination Correlate With Immunologic and Clinical Outcome in Stage III and IV Melanoma Patients

Steve Boudewijns, Harm Westdorp, Rutger H.T. Koornstra, Erik H.J.G. Aarntzen, Gerty Schreibelt, Jeroen H.A. Creemers, Cornelis J.A. Punt, Carl G. Figdor, I. Jolanda M. de Vries, Winald R. Gerritsen, and Kalijn F. Bol





FRI0230 Assessment of Safety, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of A Novel anti-CD40 Monoclonal antibody, CFZ533, in Healthy Volunteers and in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

A. SladeP. Koo, Y. He, P. Espie, A. Auger-Sarrazin, J. Rush, P. Gergely

Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, June 2016; Vol 75, Issue Suppl 2.


Characterisation of the clinical and activated T cell response to repeat delayed-type hypersensitivity skin challenges in human subjects, with KLH and PPD, as a potential model to test T cell-targeted therapies.

BelsonSchmidtFernandoHardesScottBrettClark, OliveiraDavisMcHughStone.

Inflamm Res. 2016 May;65(5):389-404. doi: 10.1007/s00011-016-0923-4. Epub 2016 Mar 11.


Exploring the ocean for new drug developments: Marine pharmacology


A Phase I Study of Unimolecular Pentavalent (Globo-H-GM2-sTn-TF-Tn) Immunization of Patients with Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cancer in First Remission

Roisin E. O’Cearbhaill, Govind Ragupathi, Jianglong Zhu, Qian Wan, Svetlana Mironov, Guangbin Yang, Maria K. Spassova, Alexia Iasonos, Sara Kravetz, Ouathek Ouerfelli, David R. Spriggs, Samuel J. Danishefsky and Paul J. Sabbatini.

Cancers 20168(4), 46; doi:10.3390/cancers8040046


Prolonged intralymphatic delivery of dendritic cells through implantable lymphatic ports in patients with advanced cancer

Michal Radomski, Herbert J. Zeh, Howard D. Edington, James F. Pingpank, Lisa H. Butterfield,Theresa L. Whiteside, Eva Wieckowski, David L. Bartlett, Pawel Kalinski

DOI: 10.1186/s40425-016-0128-y


Inducible T-cell co-stimulator ligand (ICOSL) blockade leads to selective inhibition of anti-KLH IgG responses in subjects with systemic lupus erythematosus

B A Sullivan, W Tsuji, A Kivitz, J Peng, G E Arnold, M J Boedigheimer, K Chiu, C L Green, A Kaliyaperumal, C Wang, J Ferbas, and J B Chung

Lupus Sci Med. 2016; 3(1): e000146.
Published online 2016 Apr 8. doi:  10.1136/lupus-2016-000146

Relates to Clinical Trials: NCT02391259 and NCT00774943



Trophic Relationships between Two Gastropods and Seaweeds in Subtropical Rocky Reefs Based on Stable Isotope Analyses

Alejandra Piñón-Gimate, Mercedes M. Gómez-Valdez, Alejandra Mazariegos-Villarreal and Elisa Serviere-Zaragoza.

Journal of Shellfish Research 35(1):191-197. 2016

Full text 


The Design of a Clostridium diffi cile Carbohydrate-Based Vaccine

Mario A. Monteiro

Chapter 21
Vaccine Design: Methods and Protocols: Volume 1: Vaccines for Human Diseases, Methods in Molecular Biology

Sunil Thomas (ed.), Vaccine Design: Methods and Protocols: Volume 1: Vaccines for Human Diseases, Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 1403, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4939-3387-7_21, © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016 



Triple peptide vaccination as consolidation treatment in women affected by ovarian and breast cancer: Clinical and immunological data of a phase I/II clinical trial





Clinical Safety and Immunogenicity of Tumor-Targeted, Plant-Made Id-KLH Conjugate Vaccines for Follicular Lymphoma

Daniel Tusé, Nora Ku, Maurizio Bendandi, Carlos Becerra, Robert Collins Jr., Nyla Langford, Susana Inogés Sancho, Ascensión López-Díaz de Cerio, Fernando Pastor, Romy Kandzia, Frank Thieme, Franziska Jarczowski, Dieter Krause, Julian K.-C. Ma, Shan Pandya, Victor Klimyuk, Yuri Gleba, and John E. Butler-Ransohoff.

BioMed Research InternationalVolume 2015 (2015), Article ID 648143


Development of a 20N Virus Filtration Process for Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) – A High Molecular Weight Protein

L. Milbrandt, C. Brisson, Z. Aguilar, W. Bailey.

Poster presented January 21, 2016

Protein Science Week Conference
San Diego, California
Jan 18-22, 2016